Erbil Citadel

Corinne Redfern spends a night on the town in Iraq. I open my mouth to protest — talking my way into things is a CV-listed strength. A friend takes over. The first thing I see walking through the door is someone passed out, head down on the pool table. Erbil is just 50km from Mosul where air strikes and suicide bombs in the war zone have devastated the city. But while the conflict has forced over 3 million Iraqi residents from their homes since , and the Islamic caliphate continues to impose its regime of terror across the region, Erbil or Irbil has remained largely unscathed. Here, sustaining peace is the order of the day — and alcohol-fuelled escapism provides the scene of the night. If you spend 18 hours a day, six days a week working with rape victims or children who have been used as human shields by ISIS, then you really need to find a way to decompress and socialise for a few hours on your one night off.

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Shaho returned from Germany with his big sister, mother and father in December As the family was about to start their new business in Erbil, the world suddenly came to a standstill in the shadow of the coronavirus pandemic. But they never thought of giving up. Shaho recalls that landing in Berlin was very different from what he had heard about life in Europe.

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Erbil; and known in ancient history as Arbela and also spelled Arbil, Arbel and Irbil, is the largest most populated city in Iraqi Kurdistan and capital city of Kurdistan Region. It is located approximately in the center of Iraqi Kurdistan region and the north of Iraq. Lalish is a mountain valley temple situated in the Shekhan District and controlled by the autonomous Kurdistan Region since It is the holiest temple of the Yazidis.

It is the location of the tomb of Sheikh Adi ibn Musafir, a central figure of the Yazidi faith. It is a sub-district of the Tel Kaif District and is 45km north of Mosul. The town is controlled by the Kurdistan Democratic Party and Peshmerga.

The Washington-Erbil-Moscow triangle through the prism of the September Referendum

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The citadel features a peculiar fan-like pattern dating back to Erbil’s late document the antiquity of settlement on the site – Erbil corresponds to ancient Arbela.

This paper focuses on the international impact of the 25 September referendum, and specifically on Kurdish relations with the US and Russia in its immediate aftermath. It could be argued both that the US response represents a challenge for the Kurdistan Region in Iraq, and that, for three reasons, this challenge is not new. Firstly, the new US presidency, mired in a series of controversies and enjoying only questionable domestic support, has structurally complicated the already delicate implementation of a coherent US foreign policy in the Middle East in general and in Iraq in particular.

Secondly, this has been further exacerbated by the traditional US foreign policy process whereby different bureaucracies, be they Congressional, the State Department or the Department of Defence, develop different stances about the same issue. This has been particularly the case regarding Kurdish affairs. Thus, the referendum has impacted not so much strategic Kurdish-US relations per se , but rather Kurdish society itself and its political system.

The aftermath of the referendum did not herald a definitive change in US-Kurdish relations. The referendum itself could be perceived as a pause, with the KRG insisting on a policy perceived as counter to US interests.

A rich diverse city – Erbil-Kurdistan

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The Citadel features a peculiar fan-like pattern, dating back to Erbil’s late records document the antiquity of settlement on the site – Erbil corresponds to.

This initiative allowed WMF and course participants to immerse themselves in discovering the treasures of Kurdistan, a diverse landscape filled with historic sites, influenced by the many groups that have left their mark throughout history. Decades of civil unrest however, have taken their toll on the ancient Citadel buildings, many of which lack electricity and proper drainage and sanitation systems. In , the Erbil Citadel became a World Heritage Site, following the first systematic archaeological excavations on the site in Recent developments in Iraq bring with them an opportunity through which conservation work and repair of the citadel might begin.

However, funds and technical assistance are critical to the future of the city of Erbil as a whole. The use of the site, including the quarries and reliefs, in late antiquity indicate its importance throughout the centuries. Today the reliefs are threatened by encroaching development, and in need of more comprehensive heritage management planning, also requiring conservation work, as the stone surfaces suffer from exfoliation and staining caused by water runoff and the quality of the limestone.

Khinnis was included on the World Monuments Watch to increase awareness of heritage assets in the area and improve visitor experiences through fuller interpretation. The Qaisari Bazaar in Koya is an impressive structure containing expansive areas of older, possibly Ottoman-period market stalls and residential areas. An ornate gateway marks the entrance to an ancient caravan. Holy areas including sacred springs, rooms of blessed bread, and jars of olive oil add to the spiritual nature of the place.

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Helawa: A New Northern Ubaid/Late Chalcolithic Site in the Erbil Plain. Conference with a later occupation dating to the 2nd millennium BC.

It is one of the most ancient cities in the world, dating back at least to bce. Erbil has long been an important trade centre, with roads south to Arab Iraq and abroad to Turkey , Iran , and Syria. Hamilton runs from Erbil through the mountains and canyons northeast to the Iranian border. Erbil was already an ancient city when Alexander the Great famously defeated the Persian king Darius III some 50 miles 80 km northwest of it at the Battle of Gaugamela , also known as the Battle of Arbela Erbil , in bce.

The Muslims conquered Erbil in the 7th century, but it was not until Erbil was razed by the Turkic conqueror Timur Tamerlane in the late 14th century that it became largely Muslim. The city had already been superseded in economic importance by Mosul some 50 miles to the west by the s, but it remained an important regional centre in the centuries that followed. The infrastructure of the city and governorate of Erbil were largely ignored under Iraqi rule after World War I and suffered greatly during the Kurdish struggle against Saddam Hussein in the s and later.

However, Erbil continued to suffer economically as a result of the economic blockade imposed upon it by Saddam and by UN sanctions against Iraq. In contrast to the horrific violence in Arab Iraq that followed the U. Erbil possesses a semiarid climate with low humidity in summer and moderate humidity in winter.

Other ethnic groups in the city include the Turkmen and Arabs. Although Assyrian and Chaldean Christians speak dialects of Aramaic, culturally they have much in common with the Kurds. In the past there also was an important Jewish presence in Erbil, the last remnants of which departed after the creation of the State of Israel in

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Historians claim that the city has been permanently inhabited since the 28th century B. With 30, years of history and, today, a UNESCO World Heritage site, Erbil or Hawler, as the locals call it is the capital of Iraqi Kurdistan and a city that has played a very significant role in 21st-century history and the fight against the Islamic State. However, if you think that visiting Erbil is just about wandering around a traditional Muslim city, you are completely wrong, because this is a real pro-Western metropolis and a business hub, home to a large expat community and some of the best nightlife in the Middle East, often compared to Beirut.

I have visited it twice and it is a city which really fascinates me, so here is a complete E rbil travel guide, which includes things to do in Erbil , as well as transportation and accommodation tips. For all the practical information to the region, read: 50 Useful tips for traveling to Iraqi Kurdistan. This is where the Kurds meet, socialize and, basically, hang out. It is always crowded with all kinds of people, from kids to the local young hipsters and old men in their traditional clothes.

Just sit down, observe and all the pieces will come together. Read: Places to visit in Iraqi Kurdistan — A 2-week itinerary. The Kurds, especially the elderly, have one hobby, which is that they spend the whole day buying, selling and playing around with worry-beads, a sort of necklace. They touch them, squeeze them and switch them from one hand to the other, non-stop, for the whole day.

You can see people playing with worry-beads all over the Middle East, especially in Turkey, but seriously, nowhere else it is as crazy as in Erbil and Iraqi Kurdistan in general. Even the least curious human being would ask why the hell they always have them. There is even a worry-bead market in the main square itself and it is one of the most interesting things to do in Erbil.

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A publication of the Archaeological Institute of America. How the first excavations in an ancient city are supporting its claim as the oldest continuously inhabited place in the world. The foot-high, oval-shaped citadel of Erbil towers high above the northern Mesopotamian plain, within sight of the Zagros Mountains that lead to the Iranian plateau. At various times over its long history, the city has been a pilgrimage site dedicated to a great goddess, a prosperous trading center, a town on the frontier of several empires, and a rebel stronghold.

As a consequence, almost everything known about the metropolis—called Arbela in antiquity—has been cobbled together from a handful of ancient texts and artifacts unearthed at other sites. Last year, for the first time, major excavations began on the north edge of the enormous hill, revealing the first traces of the fabled city. There, according to ancient texts, Assyrian kings sought divine guidance, and Alexander the Great assumed the title of King of Asia in B.

Other new work includes the search for a massive fortification wall surrounding the ancient lower town and citadel, excavation of an impressive tomb just north of the citadel likely dating to the seventh century B. Located on a fertile plain that supports rain-fed agriculture, Erbil and its surrounds have, for thousands of years, been a regional breadbasket, a natural gateway to the east, and a key junction on the road connecting the Persian Gulf to the south with Anatolia to the north.

Yet, through thousands of years, the city survived, and even thrived, while other once-great cities such as Babylon and Nineveh crumbled. The citadel remains at the heart of a thriving city with a population of 1. The refugees have since moved to new settlements, and efforts are currently under way to renovate the deteriorating nineteenth- and twentieth-century mudbrick dwellings and twisting, narrow alleys. A textile museum opened in a restored, grand, century-old mansion in early , and work rebuilding the adjacent nineteenth-century Ottoman gate, which sits on much more ancient foundations, is nearing completion.

The conservation work is also giving archaeologists the chance to dig into the mound—which has just been declared a World Heritage Site—once so wholly inaccessible.

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Erbil Citadel is a fortified settlement on top of an imposing ovoid-shaped tell a hill created by many generations of people living and rebuilding on the same spot in the Kurdistan region, Erbil Governorate. Written and iconographic historical records document the antiquity of settlement on the site — Erbil corresponds to ancient Arbela, an important Assyrian political and religious centre — while archaeological finds and investigations suggest that the mound conceals the levels and remains of previous settlements.

De citadel van Erbil is een versterkte nederzetting op de top van een imposante, eivormige tell een heuvel ontstaan doordat veel generaties op dezelfde plek leefden en herbouwden. De citadel ligt in het Erbil gouvernement, een Koerdische regio. De citadel heeft een waaierachtig patroon dat dateert uit de laat-Ottomaanse fase van Erbil. Geschreven en iconografische historische verslagen getuigen van de oudheid van de nederzetting.

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Baghdad says Erbril airport off limits for international flights from Friday evening


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